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Incorporate climate adaptation strategies and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories into seaport and airport master plans and county and/or regional freight plans. Plans should address the critical last mile to and from major seaports and airports in part by providing comprehensive plan land use designations, policies, and standards that protect the function of roadway segments connecting seaports and airports (hubs) to corridors (e.g., interstate highways).

Implement strategies designed to improve the efficiency of freight movement as part of the region’s comprehensive intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and transportation system management and operations (TSM&O) programs. Strategies include implementing communications applications through a virtual freight network (managed in real time using ITS) which, among other things, can identify available truck parking, schedule appointments for trucks to pick up loads, and provide load matching for shippers and truckers to alleviate “deadheading” of empty trucks traveling back to their destinations.

Establish performance measures (e.g., for GHG emissions) for freight projects and initiatives and monitor performance.

Support the clustering of distribution facilities to promote intermodal centers and economic development.

Explore how to optimize the use of existing rail corridors, and consider new rail corridors to support increased use of rail for the movement of freight.

Enhance approaches to the delivery of goods in urban or downtown areas in collaboration with the freight community, including strategies such as establishing designated routes, using smaller trucks, and establishing loading and unloading zones and times.

Monitor and encourage advances in technology that could improve efficiency and reduce GHG emissions from freight movement (e.g., platooning of connected and/or autonomous trucks and use of unmanned aerial vehicles for deliveries).